Vegetarian cuisine refers to food that meets vegetarian standards by excluding meat and animal tissue products. For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted. The strictest forms of vegetarianism are veganism and fruitarianism, which exclude all animal products, including dairy products as well as honey, and even some refined sugars if filtered and whitened with bone char.
Vegetarian foods can be classified into several different types:
Traditional foods that have always been vegetarian (Cereals/grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, etc.)
Soy products including Tofu and Tempeh which are common protein sources.
Textured vegetable protein (TVP), made from defatted soy flour, often included in chili and burger recipes in place of ground meat.
Meat analogues, which mimic the taste, texture, and appearance of meat and are often used in recipes that traditionally contained meat.
Vegans may also use analogues for eggs and dairy products.
The harvesting of wild seafood is known as fishing and the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture, mariculture, or in the case of fish, fish farming. Seafood is often distinguished from meat, although it is still animal and is excluded in a vegetarian diet. Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world, especially in coastal areas.
A sailor, mariner, or seaman is a person who navigates water-borne vessels or assists in their operation, maintenance, or service. The term can apply to professional mariners, military personnel, and recreational sailors as well as a plethora of other uses. Etymologically, the name preserves the memory of the time when ships were commonly powered by sails, but it applies to the personnel of all vessels, whatever their mode of locomotion.
Professional mariners hold a variety of professions and ranks which are fairly standard, with the exception of slight naming differences around the world. Common categories by department include the Deck department, the Engineering department, and the Steward's department. Mariners can also be categorized by status as senior licensed mariners or unlicensed mariners.
A number of professional mariners have left the industry and led noteworthy lives in the naval services or on the shore. For example, Traian BÄƒsescu started his career as a third mate in 1976 and is now the President of Romania. Arthur Phillip joined the Merchant Navy in 1751 and 37 years later founded Sydney, Australia. Merchant mariner Douglass North went from seaman to navigator to winning the 1993 Nobel Prize in Economics.